Apart from the checksums, what data should go into the control file? The blocksize must be transmitted, so that the client calculates the checksums on the same size of block. A fixed value could be hard-coded, but I prefer to keep it tunable until we can prove in common use that one value is always best. Andrew Tridgell's paper on rsync [[Rsync1998]] suggests that a value of around 500-700 bytes is optimal for source code (so perhaps textual data more generally); but for transmitting ISO images of Linux distributions, or other very large and often binary content, there is likely to be less movement of small blocks of data and more large blocks of either matching or non-matching data, where a larger blocksize to the algorithm is appropriate. For now it can be configurable.
The file length must be transmitted, so that we know the total number of blocks. Also, the final block of data will often extend past the end of the file, which will need to be padded when calculating checksums. So zsync must truncate the file once the block downloading is done.
The control file could include file permissions and other data, in a similar way to subversion's file properties. This is more important within organisations, and hence where the user often has logins on both machines. In this situation, there is little wrong with the existing solution of rsync. For situations where zsync is more useful, there is usually no trust between the distributor and the downloader, so permissions data is not useful. I have not attempted any features in this area.
The URL from which the unknown blocks are to be retrieved can also be part of the metafile. We could code in the assumption that the metafile is always alongside the normal content — but this would be an unnecessary restriction. By putting the URL inside the control file, we give the chance to host the control file outside of the normal directory tree, which will be convenient at this early stage of zsync's development.
The control file header will not exceed a few hundred bytes. The block checksum data will be some certain and fixed number of bytes per block in the file to be transferred; the precise content is discussed next.